in Bertrams

Chapter 20 – Juno


Throughout Chapter 20 Caroline is explicitly compared to Juno.  Juno is an ancient Roman goddess who held a high position in the divine hierarchy.  Juno was considered the queen of the gods and was married to Jupiter.  Despite being held in high regard, Juno was also known for her extreme pride and anger, which is fully highlighted in Vergil’s Aeneid.  The identification of Caroline with Juno furthers the militaristic imagery that Trollope has used with Caroline.  Caroline is able to retain a feminine identity, but with certain masculine attributes, and Juno was often depicted in a similar vein.  [KS 2012]


archaic language used to address Caroline as a goddess

Trollope address Caroline with archaic language–“thou,” “didst,” “thy,” “hadst,” etc.–to further convey Caroline’s goddess-like manner.  The employment of this language seems to elevate her status and place her on the “pedestal” of Juno.  However, this elevation is undone in the course of the novel, as Caroline will fall from her pedestal and become more human.  In her pride she clings to her pedestal, but such pride will be part of her undoing.  [KS & RR 2012]


Juno and thrice-built Troy

The ancient city of Troy, located in Asia Minor, was destroyed more than once according to Classical mythology.  Not only did the Greeks famously defeat the city in the Trojan War, but Hercules also conquered it earlier.  Juno was a staunch opponent of Troy, largely due to her being slighted by Paris, a Trojan prince, who gave to Venus, not Juno, the title of the loveliest of the goddesses.  Juno’s animosity against the Trojans continued even after the destruction of the city:  throughout Vergil’s Aeneid she attempts to thwart Aeneas and other Trojan survivors in their attempt to establish a new home.  Here Trollope likens Caroline to a Juno poised to destroy Troy yet again–angry, grieved, and jealous in defeat but maintaining her royal dignity and preparing to strike again.  Just as Juno in mythology rarely achieves her heart’s desire, Caroline will not be happy as long as she maintains a Juno-like stance.  [RR 2012]

Source:  Cassell’s Dictionary of Classical Mythology.


quarrels of lovers

Caroline informs Miss Baker of the argument which she had with George and which led to the cancellation of their engagement.  Miss Baker inquires if they have “quarrelled” and she gives herself some assurance that all will be fine by recalling that there is “some old proverb about the quarrels of lovers.”  The “proverb” comes from Terence’s Andria, a Roman comedy.  As Simo and Chremes discuss the argument held between Simo’s son and his son’s lover, Chremes assures Simo that “the quarrels of lovers are the renewals of love.”  Miss Bakers utilizes this proverb to reaffirm her hope that all could be well between George and Caroline.  [KS 2012]

Source: Terence, Andria 555.