Vocabula

In this list we have included Latin and ancient Greek words appearing in Trollope’s novels which had been assimilated into the English spoken and written by Trollope and his contemporaries.  We have limited the list to words whose forms are (nearly) identical in English to their Latin or (transliterated) Ancient Greek forms.  These words do not necessarily carry any particular Classical association in their Trollopian contexts, but they bear witness to a very general kind of Classical influence on Trollope’s language and they provide texture to his prose.  Main sources, unless otherwise noted, are the OED, OLD, LS, and LSJ.

 

actor

- from the Latin noun actor:  do-er
- an English noun: one who does
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 31:  “Half at least of the noble deeds done in this world are due to emulation, rather than to the native nobility of the actors.”

 

Adonis

- from the Greek name Adonis:  a character in mythology who was the beautiful (but mortal) lover of Aphrodite
- an English noun:  a handsome young man
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 14:  ”She knew he was no longer an Adonis when he married her. ”

 

aegis

- from the Greek noun aigis via the Latin noun aegis:  the shield of Zeus/Jupiter and Minerva/Athena
- an English noun:  protection, authority
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 50:  “But even to this proposition Mrs. Crawley could give no assent, though she expressed no direct dissent.  As regarded her own feelings, she would have much preferred to have been left to live through her misery alone; but she could not but appreciate the kindness which endeavoured to throw over her and hers in their trouble the aegis of first-rate county respectability.”

 

alias

- from the Latin adverb alias:  at another time, otherwise
- an English adverb:  otherwise called
- an English noun:  another name by which someone is called
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 56:  “And the head and legs and neck of that little man were like to the head and legs and neck of–our friend Doodles, alias Captain Boodle, of Warwickshire.”

 

 Alma Mater

- from the Latin adjective and noun phrase alma mater:  nourishing mother
- an English noun:  the school one has attended
-  an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 34:  “The bad men, said he, and the weak and worthless, blunder into danger and burn their feet; but the good men, they who have any character, they who have that within them which can reflect credit in their Alma Mater, they come through scatheless.”

 

alter ego

- from the Latin adjective alter and pronoun ego:  another I
- an English noun:  a person’s representative
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 28:  “His Excellency is no more than Jones, and the Representative or Alter Ego of Royalty mildly asks little favours of the junior clerks.”

 

 anathema

- from the Greek noun anathēma:  a temple offering
- an English noun:  a formal condemnation by the church; something or someone that is greatly hated
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 4, describing Mr. Slope:  “His looks and tones are extremely severe, so much so that one cannot but fancy that he regards the greater part of the world as being infinitely too bad for his care. As he walks through the streets, his very face denotes his horror of the world’s wickedness; and there is always an anathema lurking in the corner of his eye.”

 

Antipodes / antipodes

- from the Greek noun antipous: someone/something with feet opposite; antipodes is a plural form
- an English noun:  a region at the opposite end of the world to oneself;  polar opposites in character
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 48, showing the geographical usage:  “The idea of selling Chowton Farm and establishing himself at some Antipodes in which the name of Mary Masters should never have been heard, was growing upon him.”

 

apparatus

- from the Latin noun apparatus:  equipment
- an English noun:  a device
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 13:  “As soon as the door was open, the Senator, who in his mind was preparing his lecture, at once asked whether no one in England had an apparatus for warming rooms such as was to be found in every well-built house in the States.”

 

arbiter

- from the Latin noun arbiter:  witness or judge
- an English noun:  a person who acts as a mediator, decision-maker, or judge, especially between opposed parties
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 20:  “In it, I particularly begged that Mr. Harcourt might not be made an arbiter between us.”

 

arcanum

- from the Latin adjective arcanus:  hidden, secret; arcanum is a neuter singular form; acting as a substantive it can mean “a hidden/secret thing”
- an English noun:  secret or mystery
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 25:  “Since those days it has been the laboratory of the political alchemist, in which everything hitherto held precious has been reduced to a residuum, in order that from the ashes might be created that great arcanum, a fitting constitution under which thinking men may live contented.”

 

aroma

- from the Greek noun arōma:  a generic noun for spices or herbs
- an English noun:  smell
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 9:  “Winterbones, when the above ill-natured allusion was made to the aroma coming from his libations, might be seen to deposit surreptitiously beneath the little table at which he sat, the cup with which he had performed them.”

 

asthma

- from the Greek noun, asthma:  panting
- an English noun:  a medical disorder that affects the respiratory system
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 9:  ”Mr. Puttock was the rector of Bragton, a very rich living, but was unfortunately afflicted with asthma.”

 

asylum

- from the Greek noun asulon via the Latin noun asylum:  safe place
- an English noun:  an institution for the insane
- an example from Framely Parsonage, Chapter 21:  ”‘Poor Puck!’  at last Lucy said.  ‘He shan’t be whipped any more, shall he, because Miss Grantly looks like a statue?  And, Fanny, don’t tell Mark to put me into a lunatic asylum.  I also know a hawk from a heron, and that’s why I don’t like to see such a very unfitting marriage.’”

 

auditor

- from the Latin noun auditor:  listener, student
- an English noun:  a member of an audience, one who learns by listening
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 5:  “The archdeacon, who was a practical man, allowed himself the use of everyday expressive modes of speech when among his closest intimates, though no one could soar into a more intricate labyrinth of refined phraseology when the church was the subject, and his lower brethren were his auditors.”

 

automaton

- from the Greek adjective automatos:  acting on one’s own; automaton is a neuter singular form, “a thing acting on its own”
- an English noun:  a machine; a person who acts without emotions or thought
- an example from Framely Parsonage, Chapter 21:  “He ought to know that she is a mere automaton, cold, lifeless, spiritless, and even vapid.  There is, I believe, nothing in her mentally, whatever may be her moral excellences.”

 

basis

- from the Greek noun basis:  step, base
- an English noun:  foundation
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 53:  ”But I have a very strong opinion that the quarrels of lovers, when they are of so very serious a nature, are a bad basis for the renewal of love.”

 

bathos

- from the Greek noun bathos:  depth
- an English noun:  low point; an anticlimax created by a sudden shift in tone from high to low
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 26:  “And as it is but a step from the ridiculous to the sublime, and as the true worship of God is probably the highest sublimity to which man can reach; so, perhaps, is he never so absolutely absurd, in such a bathos of the ridiculous, as when he pretends to do so.”

 

bona fide

- from the Latin ablative phrase bona fide:  with good faith
- an English adjectival phrase:  done or presented in good faith, authentic
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 24:  “The parting with ready money was a grievous thing to Archie, though in this case the misery would be somewhat palliated by the feeling that it was a bona fide sporting transaction.”

 

Bosphorus

- from the Greek noun bosporos:  literally, “ox-ford”
- an English noun:  the strait that separates Europe from the Anatolian peninsula, location of Constantinople
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 25:  “There were such people in the latter days of ancient Rome; there were such people also in that of Eastern Rome upon the Bosphorus; rich and thriving people, with large mouths and copious bellies, wanting merely the salt of life.”


 cacoethes

- from the Greek noun kakoēthes:  wickedness, tendency or wish to do something bad
- an English noun:  a bad habit or desire
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 13: “We must talk, think, and live up to the spirit of the times, and write up to it too, if that cacoethes be upon us, or else we are nought.”

 

canon

- from the Greek noun kanōn:  rule
- an English noun:  a representative of the Church of England who helps to administer a cathedral
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 1:  “There is no cathedral there to form, with its bishops, prebendaries, and minor canons, the nucleus of a clerical circle.”

 

carnifer

- from the Latin adjective carnifer:  carrying meat
- an English noun:  meat-carrier
- an example from Framely Parsonage, Chapter 17:  “Friends of mine who occasionally dine at such houses tell me that they get their wine quite as quickly as they can drink it, that their mutton is brought to them without delay, and that the potato bearer follows quick upon the heels of carnifer.”

 

catastrophe

- from the Greek noun katastrophē:  a down-turning, conclusion
- an English noun:  disaster
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 25:  “‘I had meant to say a few words to you, my lord, about that man Goarly,’ said the Senator, standing before the fire in the breakfast room, ‘but this sad catastrophe has stopped me.’”

 

censor

- from the Latin noun censor:  a Roman magistrate responsible for registering all citizens and their property; censors also came to act as guardians of public morality
- an English noun: someone who approves media intended for public consumption
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 15:  ”But the doctor mistook the signs of the times and the minds of men, instituted himself censor of things in general, and began the great task of reprobating everything and everybody, without further promise of any millennium at all.”

 

census

- from the Latin noun census:  an assessment of the property and citizens of Rome
- an English noun: the recorded count of a area’s population
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 1:  “At every interval of ten years, when the censusis taken, the population of Dillsborough is always found to have fallen off in some slight degree.”

 

chameleon

- from the Greek noun chamaileōn through the Latin noun chamaeleon:  chameleon, a lizard that changes color
- an English noun:  a small reptile known for its ability to change its skin color
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 57:  “I am a chameleon, and take the color of those with whom I live.”

 

chaos

- from the Greek noun chaos:  an expanse or abyss; the original state of the universe
- an English noun:  an utter disarray or confusing upheaval
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 7:  ”If you heard something of your sister where would you be?  All the world would be a chaos to you till you had pulled out somebody’s tongue by the roots.”

 

character

- from the Greek noun charactēr:  distinctive mark
- an English noun:  a quality of people, places, or things
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 1:  “Every Saturday farmers and graziers and buyers of corn and sheep do congregate in a sleepy fashion about the streets, but Dillsborough has no character of its own, even as a market town.”

 

chimera

- from the Greek proper noun Khimaira:  a mythological monster who was a hybrid of a lion, goat, and snake
- an English noun:  a fanciful idea
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 6:  “I understand that this is a chimera—a dream that you have got.”

 

coadjutor

- from the Latin noun, coadiutor:  one who assists
- an English noun:  one who assists
- example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 2:  “At that time my dearest friend and most trusted coadjutor was Gabriel Crasweller.”

 

compendium

- from the Latin noun compendium:  profit, gain, things kept or saved together
- an English noun:  a collection of concise, detailed information about a subject
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 16:  ”Mr. Dod, therefore, in his remarkably useful little parliamentary compendium, put down Mr. Harcourt as a Liberal:  this he had an opportunity of doing immediately after Mr. Harcourt’s election:  in his next edition, however, he added ‘but supports the general policy of Sir Robert Peel’s government.’”

 

confines

- from the Latin adjective confinis:  sharing a border; confines is a plural form
- an English noun: bounds, border-lands
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 1:  “This accident has given rise to not a few feuds, Ufford being a large county, with pottery, and ribbons, and watches going on in the farther confines; whereas Rufford is small and thoroughly agricultural.”

 

conspirator

- from the Latin noun conspirator:  a person who takes part in a plot
- an English noun:  a person who takes part in a plot
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 68:  “Goarly was to be the principal witness against his brother conspirator.”

 

consul

- from the Latin noun consul:  either of the two highest ranking officials in the Roman Republic
- an English noun: an official appointed by the government to live in a foreign city and oversee trade interests
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 65:  “It isn’t Backstairs, it isn’t a consul.  Gentlemen, get out your pocket-handkerchiefs.  Mounser Green has consented to be expatriated for the good of his country.”

 

creator

- from the Latin noun creator:  one who creates or authors something
- an English noun:  one who creates or authors something; producer
- example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 1:  “There were many who looked forward to it as the creatorof a new idea of wealth and comfort; and it was in those days that the calculation was made as to the rivers and railways.”

 

creditor

- from the Latin noun creditor:  lender of money
- an English noun:  lender of money
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 46:  “The death of his young creditor might be supposed to have given him some relief from his more pressing cares, but the necessity of yielding to Frank’s wishes had almost more than balanced this.”

 

cremator

- from the Latin noun cremator:  one who burns
- an English noun:  one who cremates dead bodies
- an example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 12:  “Do you mean to say that some constable or cremator,–some sort of first hangman,–would have come to him and taken him by the nape of his neck, and cut his throat, just because he was sixty-eight years old?”

 

criterion

- from the Greek noun criterion:  standard of judgement
- an English noun:  a standard or principle by which something is judged
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 38:  “After all, it may be questioned whether this be not a truer criterion of respectability than that other one of keeping a gig.”

 

curator

- from the Latin noun curator:  manager,  care-taker
- an English noun:  over-seer,  custodian, manager
- an example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 6:  “This was Mr Graybody, the curator, who had been specially appointed to occupy a certain residence, to look after the grounds, and to keep the books of the establishment.”

 

curriculum

- from the Latin noun, curriculum:  a race, a race-course; a career
- an English noun:  a standard course of study at a university or school
- example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 2:  “He had been Colonel of the Curriculum, as they now call the head boy; but Eva had not then cared for Colonels of Curriculums, but had thought more of young Grundle’s moustache.”

 

decorum

- from the Latin noun decorum:  propriety
- an English noun:  behavior reflecting good taste and propriety
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 6:  “The words of our morning service, how beautiful, how apposite, how intelligible they were, when read with simple and distinct decorum!”

 

delirium tremens

- from the Latin noun delirium and participle tremens:  trembling madness
- an English noun:  trembling and sensory malfunction due to the excessive intake of alcohol
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 10:  “The doctor had from time to time heard tidings of this youth; he knew that he had already shown symptoms of his father’s vices, but no symptoms of his father’s talents; he knew that he had begun life by being dissipated, without being generous; and that at the age of twenty-one he had already suffered from delirium tremens.”

 

d(enarius)

- from the Latin noun denarius:  a Roman coin
- an English noun:  pence
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 14:  “He had contemptuously refused the 7s. 6d. an acre offered to him, and put his demand at 40s.”

 

desideratum

- from the Latin participle desideratus:  having been desired; desideratum is a neuter singular form, “a thing having been desired”
- an English noun:  something desired
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 15:  “A rich wife was a great desideratum to him, but success in his profession was still greater; there were, moreover, other rich women who might be willing to become wives; and after all, this twelve hundred a year might, when inquired into, melt away into some small sum utterly beneath his notice.”

 

dictum

- from the Latin participle dictus:  having been said; dictum is a neuter singular form, “a thing having been said”
- an English noun:  an order
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 47:  “Having thus pronounced his dictum with all the martial authority he could assume, he took his hat and sallied forth.”

 

dilemma

- from the Greek noun dilēmma:  a proposition offering two possibilities
- an English noun:  a difficult choice or situation
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 41:  ”Bertie, in short, was to be the Pegasus on whose wings they were to ride out of their present dilemma.”

 

director

- from the Latin noun director:  one who guides
- an English noun:  one who guides, usually in an official capacity
- an example in The Bertrams, Chapter 5:  “At the time of which I write, he was a director of the Bank of England, chairman of a large insurance company, was deep in water, far gone in gas, and an illustrious potentate in railway interests.”

 

doctor

- from the Latin noun doctor:  teacher
- an English noun:  one who practices medicine, a person with the highest degree in a field of study
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 42:  “‘Well, yes, rather — considering that all men wish to live.’  That observation, of course, came from Doctor Nupper.”

 

echo

- from the Greek noun ēkhō:  a ringing or reverberating sound
- an English noun:  a reflection of sound waves causing a repeated sound
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 16, referring to a young woman who has stumbled in Westminster Abbey:  “…and she herself was so frightened by the echo of her own catastrophe that she was nearly thrown into fits by the panic.”

 

elector

- from the Latin noun elector:  one who chooses
- an English noun:  one who has the right to vote in an election
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 2:  “Shall I send my compliments to the electors of Marylebone, and tell them that I am a very clever fellow?”

 

Elysium, elysium

- from the Greek adjective form Ēlysion via the Latin noun Elysium:  the region of the Underworld in which heroes and other fortunate souls dwell
- an English noun:  a place of particular bliss
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 40:  “But she had known, when she took this business in hand, that as success would open Elysium to her, so would failure involve her in absolute ruin.”

 

emphasis

- from the Greek noun emphasis:  meaning, significance
- an English noun:  special stress placed on something important
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 27:  “‘Indeed, he is,’ said Mary Masters, with all the emphasis in her power.”

 

emporium

- from the Greek noun emporion via the Latin noun emporium:  market
- an English noun:  place of trade
- an example from The Small House at Allington, Chapter 40:  “It was pleasant to see the Ladies Amelia and Alexandrina, as they sat within a vast emporium of carpets in Bond Street, asking questions of the four men who were waiting upon them, putting their heads together and whispering, calculating accurately as to extra twopences a yard, and occasioning as much trouble as it was possible for them to give.”

 

encomium

- from the Greek noun egkomion through the Latin noun encomium:  speech of praise
- an English noun:  a speech or piece of writing of praise
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 17:  “Now the Miss Proudies had not elicited from the fashionable world any very loud encomiums on their beauty.”

 

epitome

- from the Greek noun epitomē:  an incision; an abridgement
- an English noun:  a perfect example
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 41:  “From her childhood upwards she had revered and loved Lady Lufton, and for years had taught herself to regard her as an epitome of all that was good and gracious in woman.”

 

error

- from the Latin noun error:  a wandering, a mistake
- an English noun:  a mistake
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 6:  “‘Mr Bold,’ said she, ‘you may be sure of one thing; I shall always judge my father to be right, and those who oppose him I shall judge to be wrong.  If those who do not know him oppose him, I shall have charity enough to believe that they are wrong, through error of judgment; but should I see him attacked by those who ought to know him, and to love him, and revere him, of such I shall be constrained to form a different opinion.’”

 

etc(etera)

- from the Latin conjunction et and the adjective ceterus:  and other things; cetera is a neuter plural form of the adjective acting substantively, “other things”
- an English phrase often treated as a noun:  and other things, and so on
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 32:  “The mission to Patagonia was well paid, being worth with house and etceteras nearly £3000 a year; and it was great and quick promotion for one so young as himself.”

 

eulogium

- from the Latin noun eulogium:  praise; although borrowed from Latin, the word shows the influence of Greek with eu- (“well”) and log- (“word”)
- an English noun:  a speech of praise
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 35: “‘I am greatly struck,’ Lady Lufton said at last, ‘by the excellent sense you have displayed in the whole of this affair; and you must allow me to say, Miss Robarts, that I now regard you with very different feelings from those which I entertained when I left London.’  Upon this Lucy bowed her head, slightly but very stiffly; acknowledging rather the former censure implied than the present eulogium expressed.”

 

euthanasia

- from the Greek noun, euthanasia:  a happy, easy, or noble death
- an English noun: a happy or easy death; the action that brings about such a death
- example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 1:  “It is to be understood that a euthanasia was to be prepared for them;–and how many, as men now are, does a euthanasia await?”

 

executor

- from the Latin noun executor:  one who completes, one who performs
- an English noun:  one who carries out the will of a deceased person
- example from The Bertrams, Chapter 45:  “Firstly, that George Stickatit, junior, of the firm of Dry and Stickatit, and George Bertram, junior, his nephew, should be his executors; and that a thousand pounds each should be given to them, provided they were pleased to act in that capacity.”

 

exodus

- from the Greek noun exodos via the Latin noun exodus:  a going out
- an English noun: a  mass departure of people; an exiting
- an example from The Small House at Allington, Chapter 47:  “He had been making himself ready for his exodus from the big room, and preparing his desk and papers for his successor.”

 

exordium

- from the Latin noun exordium:  a beginning
- an English noun: the beginning, usually of a formal discourse
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 17:  “Such-like greetings, together with a dead cat which was flung at him from the crowd, and which he dexterously parried with his stick, were the answers which he received to this exordium.”

 

facetiae

- from the Latin noun facetia:  a joke, a humorous saying; facetiae is a plural form
- an English noun:  witty sayings
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 17:  “Mr. Moffat, grieved in his soul, was becoming inextricably bewildered by such facetiae as these, when an egg,–and it may be feared not a fresh egg,–flung with unerring precision, struck him on the open part of his well-plaited shirt, and reduced him to speechless despair.”

 

fiat

- from the Latin verb fio:  to be made, to be done, to happen; fiat is a subjunctive form, “let it be done”
- an English noun:  a mandate
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 37:  “The fiat had gone forth from the high places, and the Queen had dissolved her faithful Commons.”

 

finale

- from the Latin adjective finalis: relating to the end; finale is a neuter singular form, and as a substantive can mean “something related to the end”
- an English noun:  the last part of a performance
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 38:  “And then the finale came.  Crack he went against the wall, rebounded off, and went at it again, and then again.”

 

forte

- from the Latin adjective fortis:  strong; forte is a neuter singular form
- an English noun:  that in which a person is skilled
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 3, as Mr. Supplehouse discusses Mr. Harold Smith with Miss Dunstable:  ”Well-docketed papers and statistical facts are his forte.”

 

fungus, fungi

- from the Latin noun fungus:  mushroom; fungi is the nominative plural form
- an English noun:  mushroom or mold
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 5:  “The tone of our archdeacon’s mind must not astonish us; it has been the growth of centuries of church ascendancy; and though some fungi now disfigure the tree, though there be much dead wood, for how much good fruit have not we to be thankful?”

 

futile

- from the Latin adjective futilis:  that which easily pours out, leaky; futile is a neuter singular form
- an English adjective:  pointless, useless
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 14:  “On Monday a detective policeman, dressed of course in rustic disguise, but not the less known to every one in the place, was wandering about between Dillsborough and Dillsborough Wood and making futile inquiries into the purchase of strychnine, and also as to the purchase of red herrings.”

 

Genesis

- from the Greek noun, genesis:  source, birth, generation
- an English noun:  the first book of the Bible; origin, generation
- example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 1:  “I asked them in committee whether they were prepared to prove that the 969 years, as spoken of in Genesis, were the same measure of time as 969 years now, and told them that if the sanitary arrangements of the world would again permit men to live as long as the patriarchs, we would gladly change the Fixed Period.”

 

genius

- from Latin noun genius:  divine nature, spirit, deity of a place
- an English noun:  natural ability or intellectual power, a prevailing or special quality of a person or time period
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 2:  ”As far as reading went, and knowledge, he was probably a better lawyer than either of them; but he lacked their enterprise and special genius, and the thing had dwindled with him.”

 

gratis

- from the Latin adverb gratis:  for free
- an English adjective and adverb:  free, for free
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 6:  ”And then the lecture was gratis, a fact which is always borne in mind by an Englishman when he comes to reckon up and calculate the way in which he is treated.”

 

grave

- from the Latin adjective gravis:  heavy; grave is a neuter singular form
- an English adjective:  important, serious
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 35:  “If it’s anything sudden, Mr. Twentyman, allow me to say that you ought not to sell your property without grave consideration.”

 

hiatus

- from the Latin noun hiatus:  opening
- an English noun:  break, gap in time
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 16:  “It is a terrible gap in a story; but in these days the unities are not much considered, and a hiatus which would formerly have been regarded as a fault utterly fatal is now no more than a slight impropriety.”

 

hippopotamus

- from the Greek noun hippopotamos:  literally, “a river-horse”
- an English noun: a large African river animal
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 3:  ”‘And how,’ said Mrs Umbleby, to her friend Miss Gushing, ‘how did he find out what to buy?’  as though the doctor had been brought up like a wild beast, ignorant of the nature of tables and chairs, and with no more developed ideas of drawing-room drapery than an hippopotamus.”

 

honorarium

- from the Latin adjective honorarius:  honorary; honorarium is the neuter singular form used substantively, “an honorary thing”
- an English noun:  an honorary recompense
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 61, when Mr. Crawley explains to his spouse that he might give up his parish:  “I cannot abandon the duties and reserve the honorarium.”

 

horror

- from the Latin noun horror:  a bristling (in fear, awe, or dread)
- an English noun:  a feeling of terror and hate
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 55:  “The story having come from the lips of the girl herself had moved some pity in the old woman’s breast in regard to her; but for Lady Augustus she could feel nothing but horror.”

 

hostile

- from the Latin adjective hostilis:  pertaining to an enemy; hostile is a neuter singular from
- an English adjective:  unfriendly, antagonistic, belonging to or befitting an enemy
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 35:  “She would wish him to understand that she would like to be alone with him after what had passed between them on the previous evening,–but she must be careful not to let him imagine that she was too anxious.  And then whatever she did she had to do with so many eyes upon her!  And when she went, as she would do now in so short a time, so many hostile tongues would attack her!”

 

hypothesis

- from the Greek noun hypothesis:  (literally) something put under; something assumed true or used as a foundation, a plan
- an English noun:  a supposition which may be taken as true or subject to proof through argument or experiment
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 39:  “Fanny did not quite see the thing in this light, and yet she did not wish to contradict him.  At this moment she forgot that in order to put herself on perfectly firm ground, she should have gone back to the first hypothesis, and assured him that she did not feel any such regard for him.”

 

ilex

- from the Latin noun ilex:  holm oak
- an English noun:  holm oak, evergreen oak; name for a genus of trees and bushes to which holly belongs
- an example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 6:  “It was at present planted alternately with eucalypti and ilexes–the gum-trees for the present generation, and the green-oaks for those to come; but even the gum-trees had not as yet done much to give a furnished appearance to the place.”

 

impetus

- from the Latin noun impetus:  force, impulse
- an English noun:  force, impulse
- an example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 5:  “Sir Kennington did his best, flinging the ball with his most tremendous impetus, and then just rolling it up with what seemed to me the most provoking languor.”

 

impostor

- from the Latin noun impostor:  deceiver
- an English noun:  one who deceives by assuming a false identity
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 39:  “Under ordinary circumstances his judgement would have directed him to desire the servant to put her out into the street as an impostor, and to send for the police if there was any difficulty.”

 

incubus

- from the Latin noun incubus:  a nightmare; literally, something reclining on one
- an English noun:  something that oppresses one as a nightmare does
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 36:  “And she would be there without her mother, who was so often a heavy incubus on her shoulders.”

 

index

- from the Latin noun index:  forefinger, sign
- an English noun:  something that serves to guide or point out
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 16:  “It needed that she should submit herself to this hypocrisy before the world; but he might know,–for had she not told him?–that the clothes she wore were no index of her feeling or of her heart.”

 

inferior

- from the Latin comparative adjective inferior:  lower
- an English adjective:  lower, lower in quality or rank
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 27:  “In her own mind she would have felt very strongly that Mary had chosen the wrong man, and thrown herself into the inferior mode of life.”

 

innuendos

- from the Latin verb innuo:  to nod to, to give a hint; innuendo is the ablative gerund form, meaning “by nodding”
- an English noun:  a subtle suggestion or intimation
- in Barchester Towers, Chapter 30:  “She should have held herself so far above suspicion as to have received her sister’s innuendoes and the archdeacon’s lecture with indifference.”

 

instructor

- from the Latin noun instructor:  one who prepares, supervises, or teaches
- an English noun:  one who teaches
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 21: “Then you shall know the Blue Posts.  I will be your instructor.  You drink claret.  Come and see.  You eat beefsteaks.  Come and try. ”

 

interregnum

- from the Latin noun interregnum:  the period between the death of a king and the succession of the next
- an English noun:  a suspension of normal activities, especially without a supervising authority
- an example from The Small House at Allington, Chapter 60:  “Then for a fortnight there was an interregnum in the gardens, terrible in the annals of Allington.”

 

isthmus

- from the Greek noun isthmos via the Latin noun isthmus:  neck, narrow passage
- an English noun:  a narrow piece of land with water on each side
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 2:  “At Hongkong, I think, just at present; but I might probably catch him at Panama; he has something to do with the isthmus there.”

 

janitor

- from the Latin noun, ianitor:  a door-keeper
- an English noun: a porter, a caretaker
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 10:  “He looked at the Turkish janitors without dismay, and could not at all understand why George should not approve of them.”

 

juvenile

- from the Latin adjective iuvenilis:  youthful; iuvenile is a neuter singular form
- an English adjective:  youthful
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 27:  “With juvenile aptness to make much of the little things which had interested her, and prone to think more than was reasonable of any intercourse with a man who seemed to her to be so superior to others as Reginald Morton, she was anxious for an opportunity to set herself right with him about that scene at the bridge.”

 

junior

- from the Latin comparative adjective iunior:  younger
- an English noun:  a younger person
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 14:  “And now it had gone to Bearside, whom Nickem remembered as a junior to himself when they were both young hobbledehoys at Norrington,–a dirty, blear-eyed, pimply-faced boy who was suspected of purloining halfpence out of coat-pockets.”

 

languor

- from the Latin noun languor:  sluggishness
- an English noun:  slowness of action
- an example from The Fixed Period, Chapter 5:  “Sir Kennington did his best, flinging the ball with his most tremendous impetus, and then just rolling it up with what seemed to me the most provoking languor.”

 

legislator

- From the Latin noun legis and the noun lator:  bearer of a law; legis is a genitive form of lex
- an English noun:  one who participates in drafting and passing the laws of a country
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 29: “That one man should be rich and another poor is a necessity in the present imperfect state of civilization;–but that one man should be born to be a legislator, born to have everything, born to be a tyrant,–and should think it all right, is to me miraculous.”

 

liquor

- from the Latin noun liquor:  a liquid
- an English noun:  alcoholic liquid
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 4:  “There was no balloting, and no other expense attending to it other than that of paying for the liquor which each man chose to drink.”

 

Lucifer

- from the Latin proper noun Lucifer:  morning-star
- an English proper noun:  another name for Satan
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 35:  “Everybody says that she is as proud as Lucifer; and, after all, nobody knows what rigs she has been up to.”

 

medium

- from the Latin adjective medius:  in the middle; medium is a neuter singular form and as a substantive can mean “something in between”
- an English noun:  a channel of communication between other parties
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 14:  “Poor Miss Baker was the medium for it all.”

 

memorandum

- from the Latin verb memoro:  to relate; memorandum is a neuter singular gerundive form meaning “something to be related”
- an English noun:  a note for aiding one’s memory
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 15:  “When he had read it he made a memorandum as to the commissions, and then threw himself back in his arm-chair to think over the tidings communicated to him.”

 

mentor,  Mentor

- from the Greek proper noun Mentōr:  in Homer’s Odyssey, a friend of Odysseus, whose form Athena takes when she appears to Telemachus and helps him prepare for his mission to seek information about his father
- an English noun:  a person, often more experienced and older, who guides and advises another person, who is often younger and inexperienced
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 66:  “After his interview with Lady Augustus he simply told his Mentor, Sir George, that he had steadfastly denied the existence of any engagement, not daring to acquaint him with the offer he had made.”

 

metropolis

- from the Greek noun mētropolis:  mother-city
- an English noun:  most important city of a nation or state; any large city
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 3:  “His residence in the metropolis, rendered necessary by duties thus entrusted to him, his high connexions, and the peculiar talents and nature of the man, recommended him to persons in power, and Dr. Proudie became known as a useful and rising clergyman.”

 

minimum

- from the Latin noun minimus:  least; minimum is a neuter singular form and as a substantive can mean “least thing”
- an English noun:  the smallest amount
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 38: “The church was close to the house, and the family pew consisted of a large room screened off from the rest of the church, with a fire-place of its own,–so that the labour of attending divine service was reduced to a minimum.”

 

minister

- from the Latin noun minister:  attendant
- an English noun:  a title for a diplomatic representative and certain other government officials
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 2:  ”He had no ambition whatever to be master of the U. R. U.; but did look forward to a time when he might be Minister Plenipotentiary at some foreign court.”

 

minor

- from the Latin comparative adjective minor:  lesser, smaller
- an English adjective:  less important
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 1: ” There is no cathedral there to form, with its bishops, prebendaries, and minor canons, the nucleus of a clerical circle.

 

miser

- from the Latin adjective miser:  miserable, pitiable
- an English noun:  a wretch; a greedy person
- example from The Bertrams, Chapter 21:  ” The wicked old miser had declared that George should not be his heir; and had also said that which was tantamount to a similar declaration regarding Caroline.”

 

missile

- from the Latin adjective missilis:  cast, hurled, sent through the air; missile is the neuter singular form and as a substantive can mean “something cast” or “something sent through the air”
- an English noun:  a long range projectile (though in the example given, it also has a connotation of “something sent” since the “missile” in question is a letter)
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 44:  “Therefore she had told him that she intended to prepare a serious missile.”

 

modicum

- from the Latin adjective modicus:  moderate, modest; modicum is a neuter singular form and as a substantive means “a moderate thing”
- an English noun:  a modest portion, especially of food or drink
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 19:  “When the duke had taken his modicum, he rose up and silently retired, saying no word and making no sign.”

 

murmur

- from the Latin noun murmur:  a humming
- an English noun:  a low noise, often produced by a crowd of people talking softly
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 78:  “These and other words of curt denial came from the distant corners, and a slight murmur of disapprobation was heard even from the seats on the platform.”

 

narrator

- from the Latin noun narrator:  one who relates
- an English noun:  one who relates a story of something
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 32:  “Mr. Toogood was actually true to his promise and let the narrator go on with his narrative without interruption.”

 

nata

- from the Latin adjective natus:  born; nata is a feminine singular form
- an English adjective:  born; used to signal a woman’s maiden name
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 37:  “At the present moment Mr. Thorne, aetat. fifty, was over head and ears in love at first sight with the Signora Madeline Vesey Neroni, nata Stanhope.”

 

nostrum

- from the Latin adjective noster:  our; nostrum is a neuter singular form and as a substantive means “our thing”
- an English noun:  a fake remedy, a patented cure
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 2:  “Though other plans did not put themselves forward in the columns of ‘The Jupiter,’ reformers of church charities were not slack to make known in various places their different nostrums for setting Hiram’s Hospital on its feet again.”

 

Nova Scotia

- from the Latin adjective nova and noun Scotia:  New Scotland
- an English noun:  a Canadian province bordering the Atlantic Ocean
- an example from The Small House at Allington, Chapter 2:  “And in this way Captain Dale was employed much at home, about London; and was not called on to build barracks in Nova Scotia, or to make roads in the Punjaub.”

 

nucleus

- from the Latin noun nucleus:  inner part, kernel
- an English noun:  central point of a thing, structure, or group
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 1:   “There is no cathedral there to form, with its bishops, prebendaries, and minor canons, the nucleus of a clerical circle.”

 

odium

- from the Latin noun odium:  loathing
- an English noun:  loathing, the state of being loathed
- an example from The Small House at Allington, Chapter 68:  “Crosbie had now settled down to the calm realities of married life, and was beginning to think that the odium was dying away which for a week or two had attached itself to him, partly on account of his usage of Miss Dale, but more strongly in consequence of the thrashing which he had received from John Eames.”

 

omnibus

- from the Latin adjective omnis:  all, every; omnibus is the dative plural form, meaning “for everyone”
- an English noun:  a vehicle for public transportation capable of carrying numerous passengers
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 29:  “He was waiting for the omnibus which was being driven about the town, and which was to call for him and take him down to the railway station.”

 

onus

- from the Latin noun onus:  a burden
- an English noun:  a burden, a responsibility
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 5:  “Before dinner Frank had found himself obliged to make numerous small speeches in answer to the numerous individual congratulations of his friends; but these were as nothing to the one great accumulated onus of an oration which he had long known that he should have to sustain after the cloth was taken away.”

 

opera

- from the Latin noun opera:  work, something produced by work
- an English noun:  a genre of theatrical musical performance; a performance of a work in that genre; the theatre housing performances of that genre
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 9:  “She had still frequented the opera at Milan; she had still been seen occasionally in the saloons of the noblesse; she had caused herself to be carried in and out from her carriage, and that in such a manner as in no wise to disturb her charms, disarrange her dress, or expose her deformities.”

 

oppressor

- from the Latin noun oppressor:  one who destroys or crushes
- an English noun:  one who keeps others in subordinate or disadvantaged positions, particularly through force or unjust exercise of authority
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 6:  “It is much less difficult for the sufferer to be generous than for the oppressor.”

 

opprobrium

- from the Latin noun opprobrium:  reproach, disgrace
- an English noun:  criticism, reproach, shame
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 63, when Ludovic responds to his mother’s description of Lucy Robarts as “insignificant”:   “Of all the epithets of opprobrium which the English language could give you, that would be nearly the last which she would deserve.”

 

orator

- from the Latin noun orator: a skilled public speaker
- an English noun: a skilled public speaker
- an example in The Fixed Period, Chapter 4: “They had evidently been talking about Jack’s speech in the market-place; and I could see that the young orator‘s brow was still flushed with the triumph of the moment.”

 

pabulum

- from the Latin noun pabulum:  food, nourishment
- an English noun:  sustenance, physical and non-physical
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 63:  “They would have declared that family pride was her daily pabulum, and she herself would have said so too, calling it, however, by some less offensive name.”

 

paean

- from the Greek noun paean:  a hymn, especially to Apollo, and often sung in war or in victory
- an English noun:  a song of thanks or triumph
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 53:  “This was his paean, his hymn of thanksgiving, his loud oration.”

 

par

- from the Latin noun and adjective par:  peer (as a noun), equal (as an adjective)
- an English noun:  equal level
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 6:  “He assured himself that he was not in love with her himself, and that he had no idea of falling in love with her; but it sickened him to think that a girl who had been brought up by his aunt, who had been loved at Bragton, whom he had liked, who looked so much like a lady, should put herself on a par with such a wretch as that.”

 

paralysis

- from the Greek noun paralusis:  a loosening, detaching, palsy
- an English noun:  the loss of the ability to move the body
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 3:  “His father had been stricken by paralysis, and the house was in despair.”

 

paraphernalia

- from the Greek noun paraphernē:  resources held by a wife outside of her marriage; paraphernalia is a later Latin form in the neuter plural
- an English noun:  the items a person owns; things attendant on a certain activity
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 13:  “There was, at any rate, no danger that the archdeacon would fraternise with Mr. Slope; but then he would recommend internecine war, public appeals, loud reproaches, and all the paraphernalia of open battle.”

 

participator

- from the Latin noun participator:  one who takes part
- an English noun:  one who takes part
- example from The Bertrams, Chapter 21:  ” He consoled himself, however, by reflecting that an old man’s whims are seldom very enduring, and that George might yet become a participator in the huge prize; if not on his own account, at least on that of his wife.”

 

pastor

- from the Latin noun pastor:  a shepherd, a keeper
- an English noun:  a Christian minister in charge of a congregation
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 1:  “If we look to our clergymen to be more than men, we shall probably teach ourselves to think that they are less, and can hardly hope to raise the character of the pastor by denying to him the right to entertain the aspirations of a man.”

 

paterfamilias

- from the Latin noun phrase pater familias:  father of the family
- an English noun:  chief male figure of a family
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 4:  “The man who had made it, some time in the last century, had intended it to be a locked guardian for domestic documents, and the receptacle for all that was most private in the house of some paterfamilias.”

 

pathos

- from the Greek noun pathos:  suffering
- an English noun:  a quality that invokes grief or pity; grief or pity
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 20:  “There was a continual play of lambent fire about his eyes, which gave promise of either pathos or humour whenever he essayed to speak, and that promise was rarely broken.”

 

pauper

- from the Latin adjective pauper:  poor
- an English noun:  a person lacking proper necessities
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 15:  “The state of these eight paupers was touchingly dreadful:  sixpence-farthing a day had been sufficient for their diet when the almshouse was founded; and on sixpence-farthing a day were they still doomed to starve, though food was four times as dear, and money four times as plentiful.”

 

pendulum

- from the Latin noun pallor:  paleness
- an English noun:  paleness, especially in the face
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 41:  “There was something of the pallor of the sick-room left with him–a slight tenuity in his hands and brightness in his eye which did him yeoman’s service.”

 

per

- from the Latin preposition per:  through, by
- an English preposition: in accordance with
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 31:  “It was settled rather in this wise: that Frank should be subjected to no torturing process, pestered to give no promises, should in no way be bullied about Mary–that is, not at present–if he would go away for a year. Then, at the end of the year, the matter should again be discussed. Agreeing to this, Frank took his departure, and was absent as per agreement.

 

per annum

- Latin preposition and its noun object:  annually
- functions as an English adverbial phrase:  annually
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 12:  “It was a very wet morning and the curate had ridden over from Dillsborough on a little pony which the rector kept for him in addition to the £100 per annum paid for his services.”

 

per cent.

- from the Latin phrase per centum (abbreviated):  through one hundred
- an English noun phrase:  a proportion using a base of one hundred
- an example fromThe American Senator, Chapter 58:  “You would pay 5 per cent. for the money and only get 3 per cent. for the land.”

 

phaeton

- from the Latin and Greek proper noun Phaethōn:  in Classical mythology, Phaeton is the son of the sun god, Helios, who wrecked Helios’ chariot; as a non-proper noun, the Greek word phaethōn is a masculine participle meaning “shining one.”
- an English noun:  a four-wheeled carriage, mainly used for private transportation
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 12:  “It was a point which Morton could not contest out there among the porters and drivers, so that at last he and his grandmother had the phaeton together, with the two maids in the rumble.”

 

Pharos

- from the Greek noun pharos:  lighthouse
- an English noun:  the island off the coast of Alexandria where the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria was built; can also be used generically to refer to any lighthouse
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 38:  “They went to Pharos and to Pompey’s Pillar; inspected Cleopatra’s Needle, and the newly excavated so-called Greek church; watched the high spirits of one set of passengers going out to India–young men free of all encumbrances, and pretty girls full of life’s brightest hopes–and watched also the morose, discontented faces of another set returning home burdened with babies and tawny-coloured nurses, with silver rings in their toes–and then they went off to Cairo.”

 

phasis

- from the Greek noun phasis:  appearance
- an English noun:  the appearance of something which may be viewed from multiple perspectives
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 12:  “Be that as it may, here it is; he declares most explicitly that under no phasis of the affair whatever have you a leg to stand upon; that Mr Harding is as safe in his hospital as I am here in my rectory; that a more futile attempt to destroy a man was never made, than this which you have made to ruin Mr Harding.”

 

phenomenon

- from the Greek participle phainomenon via the late Latin noun phaenomenon:  thing appearing
- an English noun:  something remarkable or unusual
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 5:  “Dillsborough itself was not bookish, and would have regarded any one known to have written an article in a magazine almost as a phenomenon.”

 

preceptor

- from the Latin noun praeceptor:  teacher
- an English noun:  teacher or instructor
- an example from Dr. Thorne, Chapter 3:  ”If the preceptor have it in him, may not Johnny learn, not only to read, but to like to learn to read?”

 

premium

- from the Latin noun praemium:  payment, prize
- an English noun:  price, fee
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 2:  “The terms even had been settled.  He was to pay a premium of five hundred pounds and join Mr. Burton, who was settled in the town of Stratton, for twelve months before he placed himself in Mr. Beilby’s office in London.”

 

progenitor

- from the Latin noun, progenitor:  founder, ancestor
- an English noun:  ancestor
- example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 8:  “Was it not within her capacity to do as nobly, to love as truly, to worship her God in heaven with as perfect a faith, and her god on earth with as leal a troth, as though blood had descended to her purely through scores of purely born progenitors?”

 

projector

- from the Latin noun projector:  a person who throws down or away
- an English noun:  one who schemes or plans
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 43:  “He was very keen at the present moment about Metropolitan railways, and was ridiculing the folly of those who feared that the railway projectors were going too fast.”

 

protector

- a Latin noun protector:  a guard or guardian
- an English noun:  a guard or guardian
- an example in The Bertrams, Chapter 44:  “What, sir!  Do you set yourself up as her protector?”

 

quantum

- from the Latin adjective quantus:  how great, how much; quantum is a neuter singular form
- an English noun:  share or portion
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 25:  “What more than this, that having sold its daily quantum of chocolate, it shall have a theatre to go to, a spectacle to look at, ices, coffee, and eau sucree!”

 

quasi-

- from the Latin conjunction quasi:  as if
- an English prefix:  seemingly, sort of
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 15:  “There had been a sort of quasi-connection between Miss Baker and the elder Miss Gauntlet–a connection of very faint local character–in years gone by.”

 

quidnuncs

- from the Latin phrase quid nunc:  what now?
- an English noun:  a gossip or lover of news
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 25:  “Quidnuncs at the club began to say that he would give up the legal side of politics and devote himself to statesmanship.”

 

quota

- from the Latin adjective and noun phrase quota pars:  what part, how much of an amount
- an English noun:  a required amount
- an example from Doctor Thorne, Chapter 45, dicussing the idea of novelists’ employing a legal professional to provide advice about the details of their narratives:  “The idea is worthy of consideration, and I can only say, that if such an arrangement can be made, and if a counsellor adequately skilful can be found to accept the office, I shall be happy to subscribe my quota; it would be but a modest tribute towards the cost.”

 

rector

- from the Latin noun rector:  guide, director, ruler
- an English noun:  a clergyman in charge of a parish
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 1:  ”Quieta non movere was the motto by which the rector governed his life, and he certainly was not at all the man to allow his curate to drive him into activity.”

 

residuum

- from the Latin adjective residuus: left behind: residuum is a neuter singular form which acting as a substantive can mean “a thing left behind”
- an English noun: a substance/thing that is left behind
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 25:  “Since those days it has been the laboratory of the political alchemist, in which everything hitherto held precious has been reduced to a residuum, in order that from the ashes might be created that great arcanum, a fitting constitution under which thinking men may live contented.”

 

rhododendron

- from the Greek noun rhododendron:  a rose-laurel or rhododendron
- an English noun:  a shrub, bush, or tree belonging to the heath family
- an example from The Small House at Allington, Chapter 54: “I did indeed, Mr John, from the first moment when he used to be nigging away at them foutry balls, knocking them in among the rhododendrons, as though there weren’t no flower blossoms for next year.”

 

rostrum

- from the Latin noun rostrum:  a beak of a bird, the bow of a ship; the platform for speakers in the Roman Forum was known as the Rostrum because it was decorated with the bows of defeated ships
- an English noun:  a platform for public speaking
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 23:  ”Men who are as yet little more than boys, who have but just left, what indeed we may not call a school, but a seminary intended for their tuition as scholars, whose thoughts have been mostly of boating, cricketing, and wine parties, ascend a rostrum high above the heads of the submissive crowd, not that they may read God’s word to those below, but that they may preach their own word for the edification of their hearers.”

 

sanctum (and sanctum sanctorum)

- from the Latin adjective sanctus:  holy; sanctum is a neuter singular form; taken as a substantive, “holy thing;” sanctum sanctorum means “holy of holies”
- an English noun:  shrine, holy place; special refuge or retreat
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 28: “Then Mounser Green led the way into a smaller inner sanctum in which it may be presumed that he really did his work.”

 

scene

- from the Greek noun skēnē:  a stage or backdrop
- an English noun:  the location of an event
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 16: “Mr. Gotobed, when the persecutions of Goarly were described to him at the scene of the dead fox, had expressed considerable admiration for the man’s character as portrayed by what he then heard.”

 

scintilla

- from the Latin noun scintilla:  a spark
- an English noun:  a small amount of a quality or feeling
- an example from The Last Chronicle of Barset, Chapter 32, when Mr. Crawley speaks to Mr. Toogood about the mystery of the check:  ”I wish, Mr. Toogood, I could explain to you the toilsome perseverance with which I have cudgelled my poor brains, endeavouring to extract from them some scintilla of memory that would aid me.”

 

senator

- from the Latin noun senator:   member of the Roman Senate
- an English noun:  a leading figure, a counselor; a member of the United States Senate
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 33:  “Your walk in life will be that of a literary man: but nowadays literary men become senators and statesmen.”
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 8:  ”Mr. Elias Gotobed, who was coming, was perhaps the most distinguished American of the day, and was Senator for Mickewa.”

 

species

- from the Latin noun species:  a seeing, the thing seen, appearance, sort
- an English noun:  class of things or beings having common traits
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 27:  “There might be a question whether, upon the whole, the parrot had not the best of the conversation, as the bird, which the old lady declared to be the wonder of his species, repeated the last word of nearly every sentence spoken either by our friends or by the old lady herself.”

 

specimen

- from the Latin noun specimen:  mark, example
- an English noun:  an example of something
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 68:  “‘Certainly–and not a bad specimen of a British farmer.’  ‘Not a bad specimen of a Briton generally;–but still, perhaps, a little unreasonable.’”

 

spectator

- from the Latin noun spectator:  a watcher
- an English noun:  one who looks at something
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 15:  “Our doctrine is, that the author and the reader should move along together in full confidence with each other. Let the personages of the drama undergo ever so completely a comedy of errors among themselves, but let the spectator never mistake the Syracusan for the Ephesian; otherwise he is one of the dupes, and the part of a dupe is never dignified.”

 

speculator

- from the Latin noun speculator:  a searcher, scout
- an English noun:  one who buys stock or property in order to make money
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 58:  “It is in that way that the country is given over to shop-keepers and speculators, and is made to be like France or Italy.”

 

squalor

- from the Latin noun squalor:  filthiness
- an English noun:  the state of being dirty and wretched
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 46: “The squalor of the real living room might be conjectured from the untouched cleanliness of this useless sanctum.”

 

status

- from the Latin noun status:  posture, position
- an English noun:  posture, position
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 74:  “In all that passed between them the lady affected a status that was altogether removed from that of making or receiving love.”

 

stigma

- from the Greek and Latin noun stigma:  a mark
- an English noun:  a mark of disrepute
- an example from Dr. Thorne, Chapter 22:  “Men they were of that calibre, that the slightest reflection on them of such a stigma seemed to themselves to blacken their own character.”

 

Stylites

- from the ecclesiastical Greek noun stulitēs:  someone that stands or lives on a pillar
- an English noun:  an ascetic who lives on top of a pillar
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 26:  “But if I talk to you of the asceticism of Stylites, and tell you that I admire it, and will imitate it, will you not then laugh at me?”

 

sublime

- from the Latin adjective sublimis:  lofty; sublime is a neuter singular form and acting as a substance can mean “something lofty”
- an English noun or adjective:  something of such great magnitude or beauty that it inspires awe; having awe-inspiring magnitude or beauty
- an example in The Bertrams, Chapter 26:  “And as it is but a step from the ridiculous to the sublime, and as the true worship of God is probably the highest sublimity to which man can reach; so, perhaps, is he never so absolutely absurd, in such a bathos of the ridiculous, as when he pretends to do so.”

 

substratum

- from the Latin participle form substratum:  something spread beneath
- an English noun: a layer underneath something else
- an example from Framley Parsonage, Chapter 40:  “No; there was much indeed to be done before she came to this; and as the poet, to whom I have already alluded, first invokes his muse, and then brings his smaller events gradually out upon his stage, so did Miss Grantly with sacred fervour ask her mother’s aid, and then prepare her list of all those articles of underclothing which must be the substratum for the visible magnificence of her trousseau.”

 

succadeneum

- from the Latin adjective form succedaneus:  substitute; succedaneum is a neuter singular form, “something acting as a substitute”
- an English noun:  substitute; cure
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 23:  “It had not been ordered by Mr. Rerechild, the Barchester doctor whom she employed; and then the young mother mentioned some shockingly modern succedaneum, which Mr. Rerechild’s new lights had taught him to recommend.”

 

successor

- from the Latin noun successor:  follower
- an English noun:  a person or thing that immediately followers
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 19, when Mr. Harding writes a letter to the bishop:  “I, at any rate for one, shall look on any successor whom you may appoint as enjoying a clerical situation of the highest respectability, and one to which your Lordship’s nomination gives an indefeasible right.”

 

superior

- from the Latin comparative adjective superior:  higher
- an English adjective:  higher, higher in position, rank, or quality
- example from The American Senator, Chapter 27:   ”She did love him,–but with a varied love,–a love which was most earnest in wishing his happiness, which would have been desirous of the closest friendship if only nothing more were required. She swore to herself a thousand times that she did not look down upon him because he was only a farmer, that she did not think herself in any way superior to him.”

 

syncope

- from the Greek noun synkopē via the Latin noun syncope:  loss of strength, fainting
- an English noun:  a loss of consciousness
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 6:  “Apollo blows till his stiff neckcloth is no better than a rope, and the minor canon works with both arms till he falls in a syncope of exhaustion against the wall.”

 

tandem

- from the Latin adverb tandem:  at last
- an English noun:  a two-wheeled vehicle typically drawn by two horses
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 39:  “The tandem was off before the carriages, but Lord Rufford assured them that he would get the master to allow them a quarter of an hour.”

 

tedium

- from the Latin noun taedium:  weariness
- an English noun:  boredom
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 6:  ”How often sitting there, in happy early days, on those lowly benches in front of the altar, have I whiled away the tedium of a sermon considering how best I might thread my way up amidst those wooden towers, and climb safely to the topmost pinnacle!”

 

tenor

- from the Latin noun tenor:  contents, sense
- an English noun:  the general meaning or content of something
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 48:  “He, however, did as John Morton had done before, and endeavoured to persuade the poor fellow that he should not alter the whole tenor of his life because a young lady would not look at him.”

 

terminus

- from the Latin noun terminus:  a boundary
- an English noun:  the end of a transportation route
- an example in The American Senator, Chapter 55: “‘And what do you mean to do now?’ said Lady Augustus, as the train approached the London terminus.”

 

terror

- a Latin noun terror:  dread
- an English noun: extreme fear
- an example in The Fixed Period, Chapter 10: “When I had uttered these words there came much cheering and a loud sound of triumph, which was indorsed probably by the postponement of the system, which had its terrors; but I was enabled to accept these friendly noises as having been awarded to the system itself.”

 

testator

- from the Latin noun testator:  witness; maker of a will
- an English noun:  a person who has made a will
- an example from Dr. Thorne, Chapter 25:  ”Nothing had been altered; nor had the document been unfolded since that strange codicil was added, in which it was declared that Dr Thorne knew–and only Dr Thorne–who was the eldest child of the testator’s only sister.”

 

trachea

- from the Greek adjective tracheia via the Latin noun trachea:  literally “rough (artery),” referring to the wind-pipe
- an English noun:  the throat, windpipe
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 3:  “But at twenty-four the east wind does not penetrate deep, the trachea is all but invulnerable, and the left shoulder knows no twinge.”

 

tremor

- from the Latin noun tremor:  shaking, trembling, dread
- an English noun:  shaking, trembling
- an example from The Claverings, Chapter 3: “‘As for that,’ said Lady Clavering, with a little tremor, ‘I don’t think there’s much difference between them.  They all say that when Lord Ongar means a thing he does mean it.’”

 

triste

- from the Latin adjective tristis:  sad; triste is a neuter singular form
- an English adjective:  sad, melancholy
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 39:  “Suez is indeed a triste, unhappy, wretched place.”

 

tutor

- from the Latin noun tutor:  protector
- an English noun:  a university teacher responsible for a group of students
- an example from The Bertrams, Chapter 3:  “Before he left Oxford he had seen the head of his college and the tutor; and he had also felt himself bound to visit the tradesmen in whose black books he was written down as a debtor.”

 

tympanum

- from the Greek noun tympanon via the Latin noun tympanum:  drum
- an English noun:  the ear-drum
- an example from Dr. Thorne, Chapter 40:  “…the doctor looked as though a name so medicinally humble had never before struck the tympanum of his ear.”

 

ulterior

- from the Latin comparative adjective ulterior:  farther, more distant
- an English adjective:  further, not stated explicitly
- example from The Bertrams, Chapter 11:  “And then he had ulterior views, which made it very necessary that George should like him.”

 

versus

- from the Latin adverb versus:  towards
- an English preposition:  against
- an example from Barchest Towers, Chapter 12′s chapter title:  “Slope versus Harding”

 

veto

- from the Latin verb veto:  literally, “I forbid”
- an English noun or verb:  an inhibition; to put a stop to
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 37:  “Had she been consulted in the first instance, she would have put her veto on that drive to the meet.”

 

victor

- from the Latin noun victor:  conqueror
- an English noun:  the winner in a contest
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 26:  “There would be the comfort of quiet in either case; but if the bishop had a wish as to which might prove the victor, that wish was certainly not antagonistic to Mr. Slope.”

 

villa

- from the Latin noun villa:  country-house
- an English noun:  a house in the country, suburbs, or near the ocean
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 13:  “This is the same Dr. Vesey Stanhope whose hospitable villa on the Lake of Como is so well known to the élite of English travellers, and whose collection of Lombard butterflies is supposed to be unique.”

 

virago

- from the Latin noun virago:  a man-like woman, a heroic woman
- an English noun:  a scolding or domineering woman
- an example from Barchester Towers, Chapter 25:  ”There is nothing so odious to man as a virago.”

 

virus

- from the Latin noun virus:  poison, slime
- an English noun:  poison, infectious substance
- an example from The American Senator, Chapter 67:  “With what virus could she poison her arrow, so that the agony might be prolonged?”

 

volatile

- from the Latin adjective volatilis:   flying, rapid, transitory
- an English adjective:  quickly changeable
- an example from The Warden, Chapter 4:  “The other three, volatile unstable minds, vacillated between the two chieftains, now led away by the hope of gold, now anxious to propitiate the powers that still existed.”

 

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